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fioston University 

School of Theology Library 










Av*!^ *^^C2> t>C:^<!>^ 


Methodist Episcopal Church 




J. Sbesier Gr 









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150 Fifth Avenue, New York 

Price, Ten Cents 

edited by 
Charles H. Morgan 

Boston University 
School of Theology Librcu> 


LL.D., was born at St. Clairsville, Ohio, 
March 7, 1836. After graduation from 
Allegheny College in 1857 and service for two 
years as a pastor, he responded to the call of 
God and the Church, and sailed April 12, 1859, 
for India, which has formed the broad basis of 
a missionary career world-wide in the sweep 
of its influence. Elected a Missionary Bishop 
for India, May 25, 1888, by outlook and leader- 
ship inspiring steps of advance which have 
embraced India, Burma, Malaysia, and the 
Philippine Islands, multiplying the number 
of communicants in some sections tenfold in 
a decade, enlarging by voice and pen the faith 
and gifts of the Church at home to make 
possible still greater achievements abroad, he 
is completing a missionary course marked by 
the vision of a prophet and the labors of an 



Malaysia, the home of the Malay, or brown man, hes to 
the southeast of Asia, between Indo-China and Austraha. It 
includes the Malay Peninsula and the larger half of the islands 
of the Eastern Archipelago. The principal islands of this 
The Land group are Sumatra, a country as large as the States of 
Areas Iowa, Missouri, and Arkansas; Java, of the size of New 

York State; Celebes, the territorial equal of all New Eng- 
land; Borneo, nearly four times as large as Illinois; and all the 
hundreds of lesser islands and islets which appear so insig- 
nificant upon the map, but which are in reality countries 
capable of supporting a large population. The Philippine 
Islands are properly a part of Malaysia, but as they are 
treated in a separate booklet the}' will not be discussed 
further in this one. New Guinea and the islands lying to 
the east of it belong rather to Polynesia than to Malaysia; 
for the people, the animals, the birds, and even the plants 
show a marked departure from the types found in Malaysia. 
The land area embraced within the bounds of Malaysia 
amounts to seven hundred thousand square miles, a terri- 
tory equal to one fifth of the area of the United States. 

Much of the country is mountainous. In Sumatra and 
Java and in many of the smaller islands there are active vol- 
canoes, and these countries are subject to frequent and vio- 
lent earthquakes. The climate is hot and moist. The 
Climate thermometer stands at about ninety degrees in the shade 
the year around. There is no time in the year when it 
is safe for a European to go about exposed to the sun be- 


tween the hours of nine o'clock in the morning and four in 
the afternoon without a pith or a cork helmet. Rain falls on 
an average of two hundred days in the year. 

For the most part the country is covered with a jungle so 
dense that a human being cannot make his wav through it 

RuAi) throictH the .71;:s(tLE 

save as he hews for himself a road or follows the paths of the 

wild beasts. These jungles are the homes of the rhi- 

Flora and noceros, the hippopotamus, the elephant, the buffalo, 

Fauna wild cattle, deer, bear, tigers, panthers, monkeys, pigs, 

monstrous serpents, and thousands of smaller animals 

and creeping things. 


The chief products are tin, of wliich this territory furnishes 
more than half of the world's total output, rubber, rice, 
cocoanuts, pineapples, cinchona bark, pepper, spices, 
Products tea, coffee, sugar, indigo, tobacco, rattan, tapioca, 
sandalwood, and teak. 
In this island territory there are about forty million peo- 
ple, of whom more than half live in the island of Java. The 
majority of these are members of the Malay famil^^ " They 


have a light brown complexion, straight black hair, and are 
three or four inches shorter than the average occidental. 
The sexes do not differ much in appearance. They are slow 
and circumlocutory of speech, courteous and dignified, 


seldom offensive or quarrelsome, jealous of any encroacii- 
ment on personal freedom, and possess greater energy and 
acquisitiveness than other natives of the islands. On the 
other hand, they are gloomy, indolent, without self- 
Malay control, strongly addicted to gambling and opium 
Population smoking, pitilessly cruel, and much given to theft 
and piracy. A distinction, however, should be made, 
as they are divided into two great groups — the savage and 
the semicivilized. The head-hunting Dyaks of Borneo are 
the best representatives of the former. They have no litera- 
ture or regular government, and wear only the scantiest 
clothing. The rest are semicivilized, possess written lan- 
guages, and a limited literature; they have established gov- 
ernments and some form of religion, and are fairly well 
provided with tools." 

The most important element of the foreign population 
settled in Malaysia is the Chinese. Already numbering 
more than two million, they are pouring into this region in 
large numbers from southern China. They are the 
The Chinese mechanics, the miners, the farmers, and the traders 
of the islands. Though many of them return in 
the course of time to their native land, yet many others 
make their homes in the new country, modify to a consider- 
able extent their dress, their customs, their religions, and 
even their language, adopting the speech of the Malay. 

In 1895 there were sixty-two thousand Europeans and 
Eurasians living in the archipelago. Most of these 
Europeans were of Dutch descent, and were living in the Dutch 
Sumatra, Java, Celebes, the Moluccas, and two thirds of 
Borneo, besides most of the smaller islands, belong to Hol- 
land, and are ruled by a governor-general whose residence is 
at Bat a via, in Java. The lower part of the Malay 
Government Peninsula, and, in Borneo, the sections of Sarawak, 
Brunei, British North Borneo, and the island of 
Labuan are either British colonies or under British control. 
The upper part of the Malay Peninsula is under the pro- 
tection of Siam. 


Speaking generally, the Malays are Mohammedans. Be- 
fore the introduction of Mohammedanism, Brahmanism, 
Sivaism, and Buddliism prevailed largely throughout Su- 
matra and Java. This is shown by the numer- 
Chiefly ous ruins of old temples, scattered all over these 

Mohammedans islands. Even now Islam does not mean here 
what it does in Arabia and Turkey. The Malay 
has adopted the creed of Mohammed, but this has "only in- 
creased the number of supersensual beings to whom he 
prays." Trees, rocks, fields, villages all have their patron 
spirits. Diseases are attributed to spirits, which must be 
propitiated. Offerings are also made to Scripture characters. 
Joseph rewards his worshipers with children, Solomon with 
rank and fame, Moses with bravery, and Jesus with wisdom. 
Mohammedanism, however, is gradually obtaining a more 
complete ascendency, owing to the influence of Arabian 
priests and the zeal of the pilgrims returning from Mecca. 
More than ten thousand Malays make this journey every 

The heathen tribes worship " fetiches, skulls, bones, tress, 
animals, and the heavenly bodies, besides countless spirits, 
visible and invisible." 

The Chinese retain most of the religious rites and customs 
of China, especially ancestral worship. 


Mission work has been carried on among the people of the 
Dutch possessions in Malaysia since 1603. The results have 
not been very gratifying, owing partly to the methods 
adopted and partly to the opposition of the government 
Dutch to the use of aggressive measures in evangelization. 
Official Dr. Callenbach, a Dutch authority, says that in 1900 
Clergy there were " some 41 European clergymen and evangel- 
ists, aided by 355 ordained natives, native preachers and 
teachers, working among 234,073 natives of the undenomi- 
national Protestant Church of the East Indies." In this 


Church the clergymen of the parishes are chosen by a com- 
mittee in Holland, and afterward appointed by a minister of 
the colonies. Their salaries are paid by the government. 


In addition to these clergymen of the State Church there 
are in the islands representatives of ten Dutch and two Ger- 
man missionary societies. The Salvation Army also 
Other has a post in Batavia. These societies claim more 

Missionary than thirty-six thousand communicants, most of them 
Movements being converts from Mohammedanism. In 1820 a 
Baptist missionary opened work in Sumatra, and in 
1834 the American Board sent out Munson and Lyman, but 


they were murdered by tlie natives after being there but a 

short time. The American Board also carried on work on 

the west coast of Borneo from 1839 to 1849. 

Of Celebes Mr. Alfred Lea says that among the islands of 

Malaysia there is "no other spot of like dimensions whose 

people are so well taught, so intelligent, and so well 

Work in behaved, whose villages are so well ordered and clean. 

Celebes whose houses are so well built and kept in such good 

repair, and whose women and children are so well 

cared for." 

In the British possessions there are missionaries of the 

Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, the English Pres- 
byterian Church, the Plymouth Brethren, the Society for 
the Propagation of Female Education in the Far 
Anglo- Saxon East, the Methodist Episcopal Church, and the 
Agencies Young Men's Christian Association. The agents 

of the British and Foreign Bible Society travel 

througliout both the English and the Dutch colonies. It 

was at Malacca, on the 

west coast of the Malay 

Peninsula, that Milne, 

Medhurst, and Dr. Legge 

founded schools and did 

evangelistic work while 

they w^ere learning the 

language and waiting for 

the doors of the Middle 

Kingdom to be opened. 

When these missionaries 

could enter the Chinese 

Empire, the w^ork in the 

Straits Settlements was 

abandoned and they with- 
drew to begin work in 

China. But that field is 

now responding nobly l)y 

sendmg many Christian CHINESE RICE MILL used 

settlers into Malaysia. ^^ MALAYSIA 



In February, 1885, a new factor appeared in the religious 
life of Malaysia — the Methodist Episcopal Church opened 
a mission in Singapore. The founding of this station is one 
of the romances of modern mission history. For 
First Step by several years Dr. James M. Thoburn, then presiding 
Dr. Thoburn elder of the Calcutta District, South India Confer- 
ence, had felt a growing interest in the spiritual 
welfare of the forty million people whose commercial interests 
center about the city of Singapore, the " gateway of the far- 
ther East." In writing of this period Bishop Thoburn says: 
"At length I became so impressed with the importance of 
the project that, early in the year 1884, I published a letter 
in the ^y€stern Christian Advocate calling for two young men 
to come out as volunteers and occupy the distant outpost of 
Singapore. I had nothing to ofTer the volunteers except a 
great opportunity to do and dare for their Master. We had 
not a dollar of financial resources, and our plan was to do as we 
had done in so many cities of India — preach to the Europeans 
and Eurasians, organize a self-supporting church among them, 
and then from this base work outward among the non-Christian 
people. The utmost that I could promise was that I would ac- 
company the two young men and help them make a start by 
preaching for a season and organizing the work for them." 

Twenty young men volunteered, but after lengthy corre- 
spondence it was felt that no two of these were fitted for this 
particular work. The outcome of this effort might have 
postponed for years the establishment of the mission 
Providential had not Providence been putting into operation 
Forces other forces. Bishop Hurst, who had been holding 

the Conferences in Europe, had had his attention 
called to the strategic value of Singapore, and when he ar- 
rived in Haidarabad, where he was to preside over the South 
India Conference, he was enthusiastic over the idea of found- 
ing a new mission in Malaysia. Under the inspiration of two 
such leaders it is not surprising that the Conference was 
ready to undertake great things. A foreign mission deter- 


mined to establish a foreijiii mission, and the name of ^^'i^iam 
F. Oldham was read out in the list of appointments as mis- 
sionary to Singapore. 

Mr. Oldham, Indian born of English parents, was in many 
ways admiral)ly adapted to accomplish the difficult task 
mapped out for liini. He had served under the Indian gov- 
ernment as a civil engineer, but after his conversion 
A Prepared felt the call to service in the Church. Realizing the 
Leader need of further education, he, with his wife, came 

to America, where he remained several years in at- 
tendance at one of our 
colleges. At the time of 
his appointment to Singa- 
pore he was on the ocean 
on his way to India to 
take up the work there 
under the Methodist 

With scarcely enough 
money to pay for their 
passage Dr. Thoburn, Mr. 
Oldham, Mrs. Thoburn. 
and Miss Battle started 
for Singapore. Mrs. Old- 
ham remained for a time 
with her mother in India, 
but her later presence 
and work were of much 
value in the early pe- 
riod of the new mission. 

When the little company reached Singapore they were 
met at the wharf by Mr. Charles Phillips, an earnest Christian 
who had been so impressed by a dream in which 
A New he had seen a ship coming in with a party of mis- 

Macedonian sionaries on board that he had gone to meet the 
Vision ship, and there recognized the faces seen in his 

dream. Mr. Phillips took them to his home and 
entertained them during their stay. 



The Town Hall was rented, and nightly preaching serv- 
ices were begun. On the fourth evening the first break 
came, and several were converted. The meetings continued 
for three w^eeks, and at the end of that time seven- 
First Fruits teen had decided to unite with the Methodist Church. 
Two of these, John Polglase and F. J. Benj afield, had 
been members of the English Methodist Church, and they 
were taken into full membership. The other fifteen were 
received on probation. It was with this little church, and 
with the promise of only such support as they could give 
him that Mr. Oldham was left, while Dr. and Mrs. Thoburn 
and Miss Battle returned to India. 

From 1885 to 1887 Dr. and Mrs. Oldham carried on the 
work alone, but during the next three years there followed in 
rapid succession the arrivals of the Rev. George A. Bond and 
wife. Miss Sophia A. Blackmore, Rev. Ralph W. Mun- 
Succession son and wife, the Rev. Benjamin F. West, M.D., and 
in Service wife, the Revs. William T. Kensett, William N. Brew- 
ster, and Charles A. Gray, and Dr. Henry L. E. Luer- 
ing. Since that time the names of sixty other missionaries 
have appeared in the lists of appointments, making a total of 
seventy-three since 1885. In this list are not counted those 
who have gone to the Philippines. Of these seventy-three 
the Conference Minutes of 1903 show the names of thirty- 
eight as still enrolled. Of the other thirty-five some have 
gone to their reward, but most of them, broken in health, 
have returned to the homeland to stay. 

Seeing the need of work among the women of Malaysia 
Mrs. Oldham sent an appeal to Mrs. Mary Nind, then secre- 
tary of the Minneapolis Branch of the Woman's Foreign 
Missionary Society. There was no money in the 
Woman's treasury to open new work, but Mrs. Nind said: 

Work Begun " Frozen Minnesota will yet, God helping her, plant 
a mission at the equator;" and personally pledged 
$3,000 for this purpose. Miss Sophia A. Blackmore of Aus- 
tralia was appointed, and began her work August 15, 1887. 
A day school for Tamil girls was opened in Singapore, and 
the women were visited in their homes. In 1888 Miss Black- 


girls' orphanage, SINGAPORE 

more opened a scliool for Chinese girls in Teluk Ayer, the field 
constantly widened, and in 1892 other helpers were sent. 

In 1899 Bishop 
Foss wrote: "The 
Malaysia Mission 
Conference has the 
genius of expan- 
sion. I could select 
from the number 
of its present mis- 
sionaries a - 
rate man to be tlu- 
founder of mission.^ 
in Bangkok or Ma- 
nila or Borneo or 
Sumatra, and could 
find men who are 
anxious to go and 

open the work in those places." From the first the mission- 
aries to Malaysia have been possessed by the ambition to 
take possession of every strategic position, to spread the 
kingdom to every corner of this vast region. The mis- 
Spirit of sion was scarcely five years old when the spirit of con- 
Conquest quest led to an exploring expedition to Borneo. In 
January, 1890, Dr. West and Dr. Luering crossed over 
to Pontianak, on the southwest coast, and explored the 
Kapuas River for about two hundred and fifty miles into 
the interior. This they found to be a magnificent stream, 
navigable for ocean steamers for more than two hundred 
miles, and lined on either bank with Dyak villages. 
Borneo Shortly after the Annual Meeting, in February, 1891, 
Explored Dr. John C. Floyd, then superintendent of the mission, 
and Dr. Luering made another tour through British 
North Borneo, on the north end of the island. On this trip 
it was decided that Dr. Luering should remain and open 
work at the mouth of the Kimanis River among the Dyaks. 
Dr. Luering remained there the greater part of that year, 
but before the next Annual Meeting circumstances compelled 

him to return to Singapore, and the mission to Borneo was 

The records of the same 5'ear begin the stor}' of another 
mission that has proved more successful. At the Annual 
Meeting it was decided to open work in Penang, on the west 


coast of the peninsula. Penang is the second city in the 
Straits Settlements, and has a population of about one hun- 
dred and twenty-five thousand people, most of them being 
Chinese or Tamils. "' The island of Penang was acquired by 
the English government by cession from a native 
Extension prince in 1785 for the small annual payment of 
to Penang $6,000. It is two miles from the mainland, and is 
twelve miles long and nine wide. Later a small 
strip was taken possession of on the opposite coast to arrest 
the Malay piracy of that part of the high seas. This strip 
is known as Province Wellesley, and was purchased for an 
annuity of $2,000." 

In the spring of 1891 the Rev. Daniel D. Moore and the 

Rev. Benjamin H. Balderston were chosen to begin 

Rapid Growth this new mission. In July Mr. Balderston opened 

a school on the plan of the Anglo-Chinese school 

at Singapore, and a few weeks later he was joined by Mr. 


Moore, who began preaching services. The Penan g 
Mission grew until, in 1895, it was made a separate district, 
with Dr. West as presiding elder. Under his able and ener- 


Presiding Elder, Perak District 


Teacher of a Day School 


Principal Boys' School, Ipoh 

Principal CUrls' School, Taipeng 

getic management Penang became the center of a large and 
flourishing group of outstations. 

The next outpost to be occupied was Ipoh, the capital of 

the native state of Perak, on the peninsula. In November of 
1894 the Rev. Tinsley W. Stagg was sent to open an Anglo- 
Chinese school. On account of his wife's illness Mr. 
Ipoh a Stagg remained only part of a year, and then was 

New Center succeeded by the Rev. William E. Horley. The mis- 
sion at Ipoh has also grown until now it appears in 
the list of appointments as the Perak District. 

In 1896 Mr. Munson was appointed to open a mission at 

Kuala Lumpur, the capital of the Federated Malay States. 

A preliminary trip was made, but the health of 

Kuala Lumpur Mrs. Munson failed, and Mr. and Mrs. Munson re- 

and Malacca turned to America. It was not till March, 1897, 

that the work at Kuala Lumpur was realh^ begun 

by Dr. W. T. Kensett and his wife. The same year saw a 

native Chinese preacher placed at historic Malacca. 

In the appointments of the Malaysia Conference of 1900 
we find what probably has no parallel in the history of 
Methodism. We read: "Philippine Islands District, Presid- 
ing Elder, to be supplied; Manila, English Church, to 
Philippine be supplied; Spanish work, to be supplied; Edu- 
I stands cational work, to be supplied; Soldiers' and Seamen's 

Institute, Mrs. A. E. Prautch; Iloilo, to be supplied." 
The marvelous story of the development of this presiding 
elder's district, which had no presiding elder, no preachers, 
and no Church organization, does not belong to this little 

Sarawak is a strip of territory four hundred miles long 

on the northwest coast of Borneo. This district is inhabited 

b}^ numerous tribes of head-hunting Dyaks and 

Sarawak Malays with a goodly number of Chinese. These 

Dyaks and Malays were formerly pirates and the 

terrors of the archipelago. 

In 1840 Sir James Brooke, while on an exploring trip, 
visited Borneo. At that time the Sultan of Brunei (Borneo) 
was engaged in putting down a rebellion, and he asked Mr. 
Brooke to assist with his sailors and cannon. A relative of 
the sultan was serving as Rajah of Sarawak, but he was not 
strong enough to control the people; so the sultan persuaded 

Mr. lirooke to accept the position of ruler of that district. 
The following year, by an arrangement with the sultan, Mr. 
Brooke obtained a deed to the country, and became an inde- 
pendent Rajah or King of Sarawak. A settled form of govern- 
ment was established, and the country has been steadily 

Photograph taken by Ui-. West in 1902 

developed. Both Sir James Brooke and his nephew, the 
present rajah, have had a keen appreciation of the value of 
missionary work, and have consistently encouraged all 
efforts made for the regeneration of the people. 

It was with the belief that Christian colonists were of more 
value in developing the country t^an non-Chri.stian that the 
rajah loaned a large sum of money to a company to use in 
bringing doA^Ti from China a colony of Chinese Chris- 
Chinese tians. Of these Chinese about six hundred were 
Methodist Methodists. As they were within the bounds of the 
Colonists Malaysia Conference they must be cared for by that 
body. It was in March, 1901, that Bishop Warne 
sailed with tlie first shipload of the colonists to their new 


home. There was no money to send a missionary over to 
care for them; so the work dragged along until March, 1902, 
when Dr. West, as presiding elder of the Singapore District, 
of which Borneo was made a part, went to Sarawak and or- 
ganized the work, appointing a Chinese member of Confer- 
ence in charge. But the need of more definite supervision 
was felt to be so great that in February, 1903, the Rev. James 
M. Hoover, who had been a teacher in the xA.nglo-Chinese school 
at Penang, was sent there to take charge of the mission. 

Held at Siong Pho, Sarawak, November 1, 1902 

In 1885 the ^Malaysia Mission was only an appointment 
under the presiding elder qd" the Burma District of the South 
India Conference. On April 18, 1889, the mission became a 
separate and independent organization under a 
Organic superintendent. In 1893 another step in advance 

Development was taken, and Malaysia became a Mission Confer- 
ence, with a presiding elder of its o\mi. Then fol- 
lowed in order the Penang District, the Philippine Islands 
District, and the Perak District. But it was on February 


25, 1902, that the Mahiysia Mission took its place in tlie sis- 
terhood of Annual Conferences of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church. One year later the Conference formulated a memorial 
asking the General Conference to set apart one of her chil- 
dren, the Philippine Islands District, as a separate mission. 

Even as these pages are written that little group of mis- 
sionaries is planning ways and means of opening some new 
station in Kedah, in Pehang, in Sumatra, in Java, in Siam, 
or in Anam. But it is not the spirit of mere adven- 
Pauline ture or the desire for "some new thing" that prompts 
Ambition this reaching out after new territory. Rather it is the 
ambition of Paul, who said: "I have fully preached 
the Gospel of Christ; yea, being ambitious to preach the 
Gospel, not where Christ was already named, that I might 
not build upon another man's foundation; but, as it is writ- 
ten, They shall see, to whom no tidings of him came, and 
they who have not heard shall understand." 


The problem in Malaysia is the regeneration of at least 

forty million people, ranging in civilization all the way from 

the barbarous head hunters of the jungles to the cultured 

but godless European merchant. Upon us as 

Vast Range Christians is the responsibility of implanting with- 

of Work in every heart that will receive it that new life 

which comes from God alone and which is the basis 

of all true spiritual and social reformation. 

The first difficulty to be met in solving the problem is that 

of language. Malaysia is the meeting place of all languages 

and dialects. More than fifty languages, to say nothing of 

the minor dialects, are spoken on the streets of Singa- 

Multiform pore. The presiding elder of the Singapore District 

Speech holds Quarterly Conferences in seven distinct languages. 

When the various native workers are gathered together 

in Di.strict or Annual Conference the question of secretaries 

and interpreters becomes a serious one. The language of 

commerce is Malay, but although the people of every land 

soon pick up enough of this language to transact ordinary 


business, very few of them ever learn enough of it to receive 
rehgious instruction in it. Tliere is no other way but to seek 
each group in its o\^^l tongue. This means that every mis- 
sionary who survives long enough must learn from one to five 
languages. The multitude of languages complicates the ques- 





tion of providing literature. Dictionaries must be compiled, 
Bibles and other books must be translated, and hymns must 
be written. There are no tools read}^ at hand, but everything 
must he made new, not in one tongue only, but in many. 
The second great difficulty to be met is that of the various 

false religions. In round nnnihors about tliirty-fivp millions 
of the people are Mohammedans. The others represent all 
forms of religious beliefs, from the most primitive 
False animism and fetich worship to the complex systems 

Religions of India and China. Up to the present time the diffi- 
culty of reaching the bigoted and fanatical Mohamme- 
dan Malays has led to the concentration of efforts upon the 
Chinese and the Tamils, as they represent the way of least 
resistance. There is good reason to believe, however, that 
aggressive work among the more primitive peoples of the 
jungles would soon yield a large harvest. 


The third great o):).stacle to the evangelization of Malaysia 

is the trying climate. The monotony of intense, moist heat 

every day in the year so wears upon the nervous system 

that five years is the limit of time that a missionary 

Trying can remain in Malaysia without serious risk of per- 

Climate manently injuring his health. Comparatively few 

are able to return to the field after their first term. 

This leaves the work to a large extent in new hands. 

If a fourth obstacle should be mentioned it would be that of 
the migratory character of the population. Just as a few 
years ago the people of the Eastern States poured out over 
the Western Territories of America in search of wealth. 
Changing moving here and there as the hope of greater profits 
Population beckoned them on, so the people of China are pour- 
ing into Malaysia in search of gain. The whole per- 
sonnel of a congregation may change in a single year. It 
often seems like sowing seed by the wayside to be lost for- 
ever, but it is not entirely so; for as our evangelists push 
out into new towTis and villages they find here, there, and 
everywhere those who have at some time been in the mission 
in some other place. This meeting with one known in some 
other city often serves as an opening wedge for the Gospel in 
a village where it would otherwise be hard to get a hearing. 
As year after year we enlarge our borders it becomes more 
and more easy to follow up those in whose hearts some seed 
has been sown. 


Tlie regenerating forces which the Methodist Churcli is 
putting into operation in Malaysia may be classified under 
three heads — evangelistic work, school work, and the spread 
of Christian literature. Up to the present time very little 
medical work has been undertaken. 

While the mission of the Church in Mala3^sia is primarily 
meant to reach Asiatics, it has not overlooked its respon- 
sibility toward the Europeans settled in the port cities. 
The work in Malaysia was begun by evangelistic 
Evangelizing services among the English-speaking people of 
Europeans Singapore, and from the first there has been a 

practically self-supporting church in that place. 
There are also English-speaking congregations at Penang, 
Ipoh, and Kuala Lumpur. While these three congregations 
are not entirely self-supporting, they contribute largely to 
the support of the native work in the surrounding villages, 
and they serve as object-lessons in organized church life to 
the native people. 


In native work, as in En<!;lish work, tiie whole niacliinery 
of the home Churcli is put into operation as rapidly a.s the 
development of the organization will permit. The opening 
of a new station in a village or a neighborhood is 
Reaching usually preceded by street preaching. A missionary, 

the Natives with a native helper or two, finds his way into a 
village, selects a convenient street corner, and begins 
to sing. The unusual noise attracts a crowd. The missionary 
mounts a doorstep or box, and explains the nature of his 
message and calls upon his helpers to testify to the poAver of 
the Gospel. Por- 
tions of the Bible, 
tracts, and Chris- 
tian calendars are 
offered for sale. 
Sometimes these 
visits are made at 
night, and magic- 
lantern pictures 
are thrown upon 
a screen while the 
missionary tells 
the stories of the 
Bible. Sooner or 
later some man 
will be found who 

is ready to offer the use of a room in his home for a small 
rental or free for the services. As soon as the prejudice has 
disappeared sufficiently for the people to sit quietly and listen 
the crowd is divided into smaller groups, w^here more direct 
and personal work can be done. This is the beginning of the 
Sunday school. 

As converts begin to come in, a rudimentary church or- 
ganization is formed, w^hich gradually develops into a regular 
church, with its officers and its sacraments. The converts are 
taught to give first toward the rent and incidentals and 
then tow^ard the pastor's salary. A preacher is appointed 
to look after the congregation, and the missionary moves on 



to another place, leaving behind him a church self-supporting 
both financially and spiritually. 

The Methodist Church in Malaysia is now doing evangel- 
istic work in nine languages — English, Tamil, Malay, Hok- 
kien, Foochow, Hakka, Cantonese, Hinghua, and Tiu Chiew 
— and will soon begin services in the Dyak language. 
In Many But it has not been according to any plan of the 
Tongues missionaries to enter upon so many different fields. 
They have merely followed the leadings of Providence 
into the open doors. A Foochow man, who also understands 
the Amoy language, finds his way into an Amoy service, and 



becomes interested, is converted, and carries the news back 
to his own family and neighborhood. He gathers about him 
friends and neighbors who do not understand the Amoy. 
Their spiritual needs must be met; so services are begun in 
Foochow. Thus from step to step the mission has been led 
to take up new responsibilities until it has reached its present 
polyglot condition. 


The objective point of all mission work is to lead souls to 
God, and evangelistic work is the most direct method of 
accomplishing this end. But the evangelist does not always 
find a welcome. It frequently happens that there 
The can be found no point of common interest between 

Educational the missionary and the people. The people are con- 
Door tent with their own way of living, and resent any 
interference on the part of a foreigner. But let a 
boy or a girl become a pupil in one of the mission schools, 
and the whole situation is at once altered. Interest in a child 
gives free access to the home and frequently to the hearts of 
the parents. 

School work may be divided into five classes — day schools 

for boys and for girls, boarding schools for 

Kinds of Schools boys and for girls, home schools, vernacular 

schools, and Bible-training schools for men 

and for women. 

In Singapore, Penang, Taipeng, Ipoh, and Kuala Lumpur 
there are large Anglo-Chinese and Anglo-Tamil schools for 
boys and for girls. The largest of these is the Anglo- 
Chinese Boys' School of Singapore, that being the 
Boys' and largest mission school of its kind in the world. 

Girls' Schools The enrollment for 1903 was 1,049; the daily at- 
tendance was 758. The course of study in these 
institutions ranges all the way from kindergarten to entrance 
to Oxford and Cambridge. The teaching is almost entirely 
in English. The boys' schools are maintained without aid 
from the missionary treasury, deriving their revenue from 
three sources — school fees, government grants, and special 

The objects of these schools are to educate the children 

of native Christians, to open the homes of the people to the 

missionaries, to remove the prejudices of the people against 

Christianity, and to open the eyes of the younger 

Their aims generation to the moral and spiritual possibilities to 

be found nowhere but in the Gospel. To this end 

chapel services are held daily. The children are taught to 

sing Christian songs, and are instructed in the fundamental 


truths of religion. Vohintarv Bible classes are conducted, 
at which a good percentage of the students are in attend- 
ance. Lessons are explained from the Christian viewpoint, 
and five days every week the pupils are under the influence 
of earnest Christian teachers. 

Connected with most of the day schools are boarding 
schools. The inmates of the boys' boarding schools are for 

the most part sons of wealthy parents, and 
Boarding Schools theise pay for their board. The boarding 

schools for girls partake more of the nature 
of orphanages, and depend upon scholarships from America. 


The seclusion of the Chinese girls in the home after they 

reach the age of twelve or thirteen years has compelled the 

missionaries to organize what are called home 

Home Schools schools. Bible women go from home to home, 

stopping for an hour or so at each place, teaching 

the older girls and mothers to read and sing. 

Every village church is also a school. The native preacher 

is expected to see that his church memlDers and their children 
are taught to read their Billies. This work is done in the 
vernacular of the people. The inevitable out- 
Marked Effect come of this policy is that while many of the con- 
in Villages verts come from the poor and illiterate classes, in 
a comparatively short time the whole social order 
is overturned, and the Christians become the educated and 
well-to-do people of the community. 

The most important branch of school work is that of train- 
ing native preachers and Bible women. Until the last few 
years the mission has been compelled to depend for most of 
its native preachers upon the illiterate and untrained 
Training converts that could be picked up or upon other de- 
School nominations. The untrained converts were generally 
for Men unsatisfactory in places where there was much re- 
sponsibility, and those brought from China or taken 
from otlier denominations were unable to fit in readily with 
the conditions of life as found in the Straits Settlements and 
with the Methodist methods of work. The need of more 
efficient helpers led Dr. West, then presiding elder of the 
Penang District, to open in 1897 a Bible Training school for 
young men. The school is still small, because it depends 
entirely upon special gifts for its support. The course of 
study, which requires three years for completion, aims at 
turning out practical workers. Four days each week are de- 
voted to study, and the remaining three days the students 
are required to spend in visitation work, street preaching, 
selling Bibles, and supplying appointments in and near the 
city. Students must give their entire time to the school. 
No one is permitted to earn money. In return the school 
allows to each student four dollars a month, with which he 
must board and clothe himself. Already the school has 
more than justified its existence by the increased efficiency 
of the men who have taken the course. 

In 1902 the beginning was made of a Bible Training 
Women's school for women. The venture is still in its infancy, 
Training but the demand for women trained for service is so 
School imperative that such an institution must of necessit}^ 


Teachers, Kkv. B. F. West, M.l). Eev. J. R. Denye: 
men's training school, SINGAPORE 

be fostered until it shall become a leading factor in the work 
of the Woman's Society-. 

In 1890 the Rev. William G. Shellabear published in Eng- 
land an appeal for funds with which to found a Methodist 
mission press in Singapore. In the fall of that year, 
Christian with a few hundred dollars invested in printing 
Literature machinery, he began work in a little house on a back 
street. From this small beginning the plant, without 
endowment and with practically no help from the outside, 

lias growTi until it requires the services of more than thirty 
workmen. From its presses have come thousands of Bibles, 
tracts, leaflets, periodicals, hymnals, catechisms, dictionaries, 
and school text-books — the working tools of the Church. 
This literature is scattered broadcast by the missionary on 
his rounds, and it not only serves the purpose of teaching 
the truth to those who have already entered the Church, but 
it sows the seed of future harvests. 


The first generation in the life of a Christian mission must 

of necessity be a time of small beginnings. The heathen 

mind cannot readily comprehend that spiritual life is 

a possibility. It takes years for an Asiatic 

Statistics and people to realize that Chri.stianity is not a sys- 

General Influence tem of forms and ceremonies, purer, perhaps, 

but not essentially different from their own 

forms of worship. And yet the Church of Malaysia does 


not come with empty hands as the result of her short life of 
only nineteen years. At the close of 1903 there were in 
Malaysia, apart from the Philippines, 26 schools, with 112 


teachers and an enrollment of 3,270 pupils. The Sunday 
schools numbered 4G, with 102 teachers and 1,757 scholars. 
There were 12 foreign missionaries, 8 assistant missionaries, 
8 representatives of the Woman's Foreign Missionary Society, 
57 local preachers, and 1,467 church members and proba- 
tioners. The Epworth League has begun its work among 
the youth, showing its worth here as in other mission 
fields. But these figures do not tell the whole story of mis- 
sionary effort. Thousands of Bibles, tracts. Scripture-text 
pictures, and religious periodicals have been placed in non- 
Christian homes. Several thousand young men and young 
women have come under the influence of our mission schools, 
and while they are not as yet Christians, they have lost faith 
in idolatry. A Christian sentiment has begun to pervade 
public thought, and on every hand are indications that the 
field is white already to the harvest. 

There has already come the da\NTiing of a new day to the 
Malay Archipelago. The Spanish- American war has opened 
the eyes of the world to the marvelous richness of this almost 
unknown region. Year by year the overcrowded 
A Coming provinces of southern China are pouring out more and 
Empire more of their surplus inhabitants into this tropical 

region, which is able to support a population as great 
as that of the United States. Here, free from the petty op- 
pression and squeezing of a corrupt government, free to 
develop to its fullest extent a natural field capable of won- 
derful expansion, the Chinaman is laying the foundations of 
an empire that will one day rival in size and perhaps in 
power the nations of the Old World. 

What shall the ideals, the morals, the religion of this new 

nation be ? It is given to the Church of to-day to do a work 

which the Church of the next generation cannot do. This 

generation is responsible for setting its .stamp upon a 

Preparing civilization in its formative period, at a time when old 

Native traditions and superstitions arQ, losing their hold, when 

Leaders new conditions are forcing upon a people new habits 

of life and thought. If the Church is to mold public 

sentiment in this new era she must send forth not a few but 

many trained men and women capable of taking their places 
as leaders among the people. For at least another genera- 
tion there must be a few well-qualified Americans to serve 
as officers, to furnish initiative and to teach organization, but 


the great work of transformation must fall upon trained 
native workers. Funds invested in the work of raising up 
an army of consecrated, educated native preachers and Bible 
women will yield an increase of a hundredfold. This is the 
great need of Malaysia. Its beautiful island domain forms 
the connecting link between our work in southern and east- 
ern Asia, having close commercial and ethnic relations on 
the one side with India and on the other with China. Some 
of the most devoted representatives of the Church have 
offered themselves willingly as a sacrifice for its uplifting. 
Others are needed, who will follow in the paths which have been 
opened, and extend the saving influence of the cross, of the 
schools, and of Christian hterature to these millions of people. 



The missionary aspects of Malaysia aie touched upon in 
the first books in the Hst here given, and the more general 
survey of the natural features and life of this region is found 
in the later ones : India and Malaysia, by Bishop J. M. 
Thoburn, $1.50; Winter in India and Malaysia Among the 
Methodist Missions, by M. V. B. Knox, $1.20; From the 
Himalayas to the Eauator, by Bishop C. D. Foss, $1; Malay 
Archipelago, by A. R. Wallace, $1.75; Jam, the Garden of 
the East, by Eliza R. Scidmore, $1.50. These and other 
mission books can be obtained, through the pastor, of the 
Methodist Book Concern. 


Each number of the Open Door Series of Mission Booklets 
is issued in a cover similar to that on this number, giving a 
simple outline map with the essential facts of the geography 
of the country, so that they can be seen at a glance, and 
some things characteristic of the land and a face typical of 
the people. The one on India has, as a background, the 
beautiful Taj Mahal; that on Korea, the queer Korean hat 
and the famous national emblem, which appears on all the 
stamps of Korea; while the one on Japan gives the jinrikisha 
and the flowers of the cherry, lotus, and chrysanthemum. 
It will be noted that the present cover has in the upper 
left-hand corner a group of palms, in the right-hand corner 
a branch of the rambutan, the delicious fruit contained in a 
case covered with burs like those of the chestnut, yet finely 
colored ; the center at the left shows the famous Malay kris, 
and picture of the susunhan or native prince of Solo, and at 
the bottom, from left to right, are cocoanuts, the mangosteen, 
both whole and opened ready for eating, and pineapples. 

Each of the booklets has an excellent and, in most cases, 
a specially prepared map covering. the two central pages, 
and is rich in carefully selected illustrations. In aU re- 
spects the contents are strictly up-to-date. The booklets, 
therefore, will prove of direct value to Mission Study Classes, 


those having charge of missionary devotional meetings, 
pastors, women's societies, Sunday school workers, and 
all who wish the most compact and latest information, 
accompanied by very clear maps and illustrations. 

Five or six other booklets are planned to be issued, cov- 
ering all the remaining fields. It should be remembered 
that in each booklet, ivhile our own missionary work is es- 
pecially emphasized, the country and people, the native reli- 
gions, and Christian Alissions in general also receive attention, 
so as to give a complete survey of the field. 

The uniform price of ten cents per copy, postpaid, for 
each of the booklets is exceedingly low, considering the 
high quality of matter, paper, and press work. Send all 
orders, with remittance, to The Open Door Emergency 
Commission, 150 Fifth Avenue, New York. 

Now Ready. 
The Korea Mission of the Methodist Episcopal Church. 

By Rev. Henry G. Appenzeller, D.D., late Superintend- 
ent of the Mission. 
The China Mission of the Methodist Episcopal Church. 

B}^ Rev. Arthur J. Bowen, Missionary, Nanking, China. 
The India Mission of the Methodist Episcopal Church. 

By Rev. Jefferson E. Scott, D.D., Presiding Elder of the 

Ajmere District, India. 
The Japan Mission of the Methodist Episcopal Church. 

By seven eminent missionaries of Japan. 
The Malaysia Mission of the Methodist Episcopal 

Church. By Rev. John Russell Denyes, Missionary, 

Singapore, Malaysia. 



1 17n D1DM2 SDMI 


Psm BoK BM 2550 


llhe Malaysia nr>ission oF 
; the Methodist Epxsoopa.